Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Poultry

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI), is one of two designations of a Type A influenza virus that affects birds and poultry. The two designations are Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) and Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza (LPAI). The HPAI and LPAI designations come from the ability and severity of the influenza virus to cause disease and mortality in poultry and wild birds.

Type A influenza viruses are named based on the surface proteins present on the viral particle. Hemagglutinin and neuraminidase are abbreviated with “H” and “N” in the naming of the virus in combination with the numeric classification for different types of “H” and “N” surface proteins. For HPAI and LPAI, the most commonly seen viruses start with “H5” and “H7”. The neuraminidase surface protein varies dependent on the specific strain. The Type A influenza virus that has been circulating through poultry and wild birds in 2022-2023 is H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza.

Indiana State Resources

The state of Indiana offers the following resources for education and reporting cases of HPAI. The Indiana State Board of Animal Health (BOAH) leads the preparedness and response initiatives in the state of Indiana. BOAH’s HPAI website provides information for reporting of sick or dead birds, current information regarding HPAI, and up to date situation reports. The Indiana Department of Natural Resources (DNR) provides the status of HPAI in Indiana’s wild bird population and detections of HPAI in wild birds. The Indiana State Poultry Association (ISPA) has resources for consumers and commercial poultry producers.

Federal Resources

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) offers the following resources for education of HPAI. The below links provide current dashboards for commercial poultry, backyard flocks, and wild birds. Additionally, information on sample collection for Avian Influenza and ordering of sample media tubes is available through USDA.

Indiana ADDL Resources

The Indiana ADDL offers the following resources for sample collection, submission, and reporting of HPAI. Below are guides to assist commercial poultry companies and regulatory agencies with the submission of HPAI samples to the ADDL. Submission forms linked below are current and required for ALL HPAI submissions to the ADDL. Included are examples of how to complete a submission form and pack a shipping container. Many frequently asked questions are answered throughout the first two guides. Please contact the ADDL with any questions: 765-494-7440 or ADDLHPAI@purdue.edu.

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