Timothy Ratliff, PhD

Distinguished Professor of Comparative Pathobiology
Robert Wallace Miller Director Purdue University Center for Cancer Research

Department of Comparative Pathobiology

Purdue University College of Veterinary Medicine
625 Harrison Street
West Lafayette, IN 47907

Phone: 765.494.9129
Email: tlratliff@purdue.edu

Purdue Institute of Inflammation, Immunology and Infectious Disease


1977 - PhD | University of Arkansas
1974 - MS | Texas A & M
1971 - BS | University of Texas

Areas of Interest

Immunotherapy of prostate cancer
Immunotherapy of bladder cancer
Communication between innate and adaptive immune compartments via platelets
Prostate inflammation
Bladder inflammation
Cancer Biology

Selected Publications

– Cimen Bozkus C, Elzey BD, Crist SA, Ellies LG, Ratliff TL. Expression of Cationic Amino Acid Transporter 2 is Required for Myeloid-derived Suppressor Cell-Medicated Control of T Cell Immunity. J Immunol. 2015 Dec 1;195(11):5237-50. Epub 2015 Oct 21. PMID:26491198

– Li J, Karki A, Hodges KB, Ahmad N, Zoubeidi A, Strebhardt K, Ratliff TL, Konieczny SF, Liu X. Cotargeting Polo-Like Kinase 1 and the Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer. Mol Cell Biol. 2015 Dec 15;35(24):4185-98. doi: 10.1128/MCB.00825-15. Epub 2015 Oct 5. PMID:26438599

– Wang HH, Wang L, Jerde TJ, Chan BD, Savran CA, Burcham GN, Crist S, Ratliff TL. Characterization of autoimmune inflammation induced prostate stem cell expansion. Prostate. 2015 Oct;75(14):1620-31. Epub 2015 Jul 14. PMID:26174474

– Lee SS, Li J, Tai JN, Ratliff TL, Park K, Cheng JX. Avasimibe encapsulated in human serum albumin blocks cholesterol esterification for selective cancer treatment. ACS Nano. 2015 Mar 24;9(3):2420-32. Epub 2015 Feb 16. PMID:25662106

– Burcham GN, Cresswell GM, Snyder PW, Chen L, Liu X, Crist SA, Henry MD, Ratliff TL. Impact of prostate inflammation on lesion development in the POET3(+)Pten(+/-) mouse model of prostate carcinogenesis. Am J Pathol. 2014 Dec;184(12):3176-91. doi: 10.1016/j.ajpath.2014.08.021. Epub 2014 Nov 22. PMID: 25455686

– Yue S, Li J, Lee, SY, Lee HJ, Shao T, Song B, Cheng L, Masterson TA, Liu X, Ratliff TL, Cheng JX Cholesteryl Ester Accumulation Induced by PTEN Loss and PI3K/AKT Activation Underlies Human Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness. Cell Metabol. 2014 19:393-406. PMID: 24606897

– Zhang W, Lee S, McNear KL, Chung TF, Lee S, Lee K, Crist SA, Ratliff TL, Zhong Z, Chen YP, Yang C. Sci Rep. 2014 Feb 14;4:4097. doi: 10.1038/srep04097. PMID: 24526127

– Crist SA, Elzey BD, Ahmann MT, Ratliff TL. Early growth response-1 (EGR-1) and nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) cooperate to mediate CD40L expression in megakaryocytes and platelets. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:33985-96. PubMed PMID: 24106272; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3837138.

– Hou X, Li Z, Huang W, Li J, Staiger C, Kuang S, Ratliff TL, Liu X. Plk1-dependent microtubule dynamics promotes androgen receptor signaling in prostate cancer. Prostate. 2013 Sep;73(12):1352-63. doi: 10.1002/pros.22683. Epub 2013/05/11. doi: 10.1002/pros.22683. PubMed PMID: 23661607; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3720713.

– Coon BG, Crist S, Gonzalez-Bonet AM, Kim HK, Sowa J, Thompson DH, Ratliff TL, Aguilar RC. Fibronectin attachment protein from bacillus Calmette-Guerin as targeting agent for bladder tumor cells. International journal of cancer Journal international du cancer. 2012;131(3):591-600. Epub 2011/09/09. doi: 10.1002/ijc.26413. PMCID: PMC3276703.

– Chou CK, Schietinger A, Liggitt HD, Tan X, Funk S, Freeman GJ, Ratliff TL, Greenberg NM, Greenberg PD. Cell-intrinsic abrogation of TGF-beta signaling delays but does not prevent dysfunction of self/tumor-specific CD8 T cells in a murine model of autochthonous prostate cancer. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md : 1950). 2012;189(8):3936-46. Epub 2012/09/18. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1201415. PMCID: PMC3466379.

– Wang X, Zhao M, Nolte DD, Ratliff TL. Prostate specific antigen detection in patient sera by fluorescence-free BioCD protein array. Biosensors & bioelectronics. 2011;26(5):1871-5. Epub 2010/03/20. doi: 10.1016/j.bios.2010.02.009.

– Svensson RU, Haverkamp JM, Thedens DR, Cohen MB, Ratliff TL, Henry MD. Slow disease progression in a C57BL/6 pten-deficient mouse model of prostate cancer. The American journal of pathology. 2011;179(1):502-12. Epub 2011/06/28. doi: 10.1016/j.ajpath.2011.03.014. PMCID: PMC3123867.

– Haverkamp JM, Crist SA, Elzey BD, Cimen C, Ratliff TL. In vivo suppressive function of myeloid-derived suppressor cells is limited to the inflammatory site. European journal of immunology. 2011;41(3):749-59. Epub 2011/02/03. doi: 10.1002/eji.201041069. PMCID: PMC3089902.

– Elzey BD, Ratliff TL, Sowa JM, Crist SA. Platelet CD40L at the interface of adaptive immunity. Thrombosis research. 2011;127(3):180-3. Epub 2010/11/16. doi: 10.1016/j.thromres.2010.10.011. PMCID: PMC3073541.

– Eberlin LS, Dill AL, Costa AB, Ifa DR, Cheng L, Masterson T, Koch M, Ratliff TL, Cooks RG. Cholesterol sulfate imaging in human prostate cancer tissue by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Analytical chemistry. 2010;82(9):3430-4. Epub 2010/04/09. doi: 10.1021/ac9029482. PMCID: PMC2872194.

– Lubaroff DM, Konety BR, Link B, Gerstbrein J, Madsen T, Shannon M, Howard J, Paisley J, Boeglin D, Ratliff TL, Williams RD. Phase I clinical trial of an adenovirus/prostate-specific antigen vaccine for prostate cancer: safety and immunologic results. Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. 2009;15(23):7375-80. Epub 2009/11/19. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.ccr-09-1910. PMCID: PMC2787649.

– Sprague DL, Elzey BD, Crist SA, Waldschmidt TJ, Jensen RJ, Ratliff TL. Platelet-mediated modulation of adaptive immunity: unique delivery of CD154 signal by platelet-derived membrane vesicles. Blood. 2008;111(10):5028-36. Epub 2008/01/17. doi: 10.1182/blood-2007-06-097410. PMCID: PMC2384131.

– Sinn HW, Elzey BD, Jensen RJ, Zhao X, Zhao W, Ratliff TL. The fibronectin attachment protein of bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) mediates antitumor activity. Cancer immunology, immunotherapy : CII. 2008;57(4):573-9. Epub 2007/09/06. doi: 10.1007/s00262-007-0397-x.

– Haverkamp J, Charbonneau B, Ratliff TL. Prostate inflammation and its potential impact on prostate cancer: a current review. Journal of cellular biochemistry. 2008;103(5):1344-53. Epub 2007/10/24. doi: 10.1002/jcb.21536

– Elzey BD, Schmidt NW, Crist SA, Kresowik TP, Harty JT, Nieswandt B, Ratliff TL. Platelet-derived CD154 enables T-cell priming and protection against Listeria monocytogenes challenge. Blood. 2008;111(7):3684-91. Epub 2008/02/08. doi: 10.1182/blood-2007-05-091728. PMCID: PMC2275027.

– Grant, J, Iwasawa, T. Sinn, HW, Siemens, DR, Griffith, TS, Takacs, EB, and Ratliff, TL. Induction of Protective Immunity to RM-1 Prostate Cancer Cells with ALVAC-IL- 2/IL-12/TNF-a Combination Therapy. International J. Cancer (In Press)

– Lees JR, Charbonneau B, Hayball JD, Diener K, Brown M, Matusik R, Cohen MB, and Ratliff TL: T-cell recognition of a prostate specific antigen is not sufficient to induce prostate tissue destruction. Prostate. 2006 May 1;66(6):578-90.

– Lubaroff DM, Konety B, Ratliff TL, Madsen T, Shannon M, Ecklund D, Williams RD: Clinical protocol: phase I study of an adenovirus/prostate-specific antigen vaccine in men with metastatic prostate cancer. Hum Gene Ther. 2006 Feb;17(2):220-9.

– Lees, JR, Charbonneau, B, Swanson, AK, Jensen, R, Zhang, JF, Matusik, R and Ratliff, TL: Deletion is neither sufficient nor necessary for the induction of peripheral tolerance in mature CD8+ T-cells. Immunology,117:248-261, 2006

– Jobe SM, leo L, Eastvoid JS, Dickeneite G, Ratliff TL, Lentz SR, Di Paola J: Role of FcRgamma and Factor XIIIA in coated platelet formation Blood. 106(13):4146-51, 2005

– Elzey BD. Grant JF. Sinn HW. Nieswandt B. Waldschmidt TJ. Ratliff TL. Cooperation between platelet-derived CD154 and CD4(+) T cells for enhanced germinal center formation. J. Leu. Biol. 78(1):80-84, 2005

– Middleton AM. Chadwick MV. Nicholson AG. Dewar A. Groger RK. Brown EJ. Ratliff TL. Wilson R. Inhibition of adherence of Mycobacterium avium complex and Mycobacterium tuberculosis to fibronectin on the respiratory mucosa. Resp. Med. 98(12):1203-1206, 2004

– Crist, SA, Elzey BD, Ludwig AT, Griffith TS, Staack JB, Lentz SR, and Ratliff TL. Expression of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in megakaryocytes and platelets. Experimental Hematology. 32:1073-1081, 2004

– Kausch I, Lingnau A, Endl E, Sellmann K, Deinert I, Ratliff TL, et al: Antisense treatment against Ki-67 mRNA inhibits proliferation and tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. Int. J. Cancer 105:710-716, 2003.

– Crist SA, Griffith TS, and Ratliff TL: Structure/Function analysis of the Murine CD95L Promoter Reveals the Identification of a Novel Transcriptional Repressor and Functional CD28 Response Element. J of Biol Chem 278:35950-35958, 2003.

– Siemens DR, Crist S, Austin JC, Tartaglia J, and Ratliff TL: Comparison of Viral Vectors: Gene Transfer Efficiency and Tissue Specificity in a Bladder Cancer Model. J Urol170:979-984, 2003.

– Elzey B, Tian J, Jensen RJ, Swanson AK, Lees JR, Lentz SR, Stein CS, Nieswandt B, Wang Y, Davidson BL and Ratliff TL: Platelet-mediated Modulation of Adaptive Immunity: A Communication Link Between Innate and Adaptive Immune Compartments. Immunity 19:9-19

– Nadler R, Luo Y, Zhao W, Ritchey JK, Austin JC, Cohen MB, O'Donnell MA, and Ratliff TL: Interleukin 10 induced augmentation of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) enhances Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) mediated antitumor activity. Cli

– Kausch I, Ardelt P, Bohle A, and Ratliff TL: Immune Gene Therapy in Urology. Current Urology Reports 3:82-89, 2002.

– Middleton AM, Chadwick MV, Nicholson AG, Dewar A, Groger RK, Brown EJ, Ratliff TL, and Wilson R: Interaction of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis with Human Respiratory Mucosa. Tuberculosis 82(2/3):69-78, 2002.

– Ratliff, TL: Uro-Science. J Urol 168(5):2341-2342, 2002.

– Brown A, Ratliff TL: Mycobacterial Interaction with the Resp Mucosa. Tuberculosis, 82:69-78, 2002.

– Shen W, Waldschmidt M, Zhao X, Ratliff T, and Krieg AM: Antitumor Mechanisms of Oligodeoxynucleotides with CpG and PolyG Motifs in Murine Prostate Cancer Cells: Decrease of NF-kB and AP-1 Binding Activities and Induction of Apoptosis. Antisense & Nucleic

– Lutgendorf SK, Kreder KJ, Rothrock NE, Hoffman A, Kirschbaum C, Sternberg EM, Zimmerman MB, Ratliff TL: Diurnal cortisol variations and symptoms in interstitial cystitis patients. J Urol 167:1338-1343, 2002.

– Broghammer EL, and Ratliff TL: Immunotherapy of Urologic Tumors: Principles and Progress. Urologic Oncology 7:45-56, 2002.

– Lutgendorf SK, Kreder KJ, Rothrock NE, Ratliff TL, Zimmerman B: Daily stress and symptom exacerbation in interstitial cystitis patients. ICBR-52 Urology 57 (6 suppl 1):122, 2001.

– Elzey BD, Siemens DR, Ratliff TL, Lubaroff DM: Immunization with type 5 adenovirus recombinant for a tumor antigen in combination with recombinant canarypox virus (ALVAC) cytokine gene delivery induces destruction of established prostate tumors. Int J Can

– Siemens DR, Ratliff TL: Vaccines in urologic malignancies. Urol Res 29:152- 162, 2001.

– Griffith TS, Kawakita M, Tian J, Ritchey J, Tartaglia J, Schgal I, Thompson TC, Zhao W and Ratliff TL: Inhibition of murine prostate tumor growth and activation of immunoregulatory cells with recombinant canarypox viruses. J Natl Cancer Inst. 93:998-1007,

– Rothrock NE, Lutgendorf SK, Kreder KJ, Ratliff T, and Zimmerman B.: Stress and symptoms in patients with interstitial cystitis: A life stress model. Urology 5(3):422- 427, 2001.

– Brandau S, Riemensberger J, Jacobsen M, Kemp D, Zhao W, Zhao X, Jocham D, Ratliff TL, and Bohle A: NK cells are essential for effective BCG Immunotherapy. Int. J. Cancer, 92:5)697-702, 2001.

– Siemens DR, Ratliff TL: Evaluation of gene transfer efficiency by viral vectors to murine bladder epithelium. Invest Section, J Urol, 165:667-671, 2001.

– Siemens DR, Elzey BD, Lubaroff, DM, Bohlken C, Jensen RJ, Swanson AK, Ratliff TL: Cutting Edge: Restoration of the ability to generate CTL in mice immune to adenovirus by delivery of virus in a collagen-based matrix. J Immunol, 166:731- 735, 2001.

– Warren TL, Bhatia SK, Acosta AM, Dahle CE, Ratliff TL, Krieg AM, Weiner GJ: APC stimulated by CpG oligodeoxynucleotide enhance activation of MHC Class Irestricted T cells. J Immunol 165:6244-6251, 2000.

– Ratliff TL: Role of animal models in understanding intravesical therapy with Bacille Calmette-Guerin. Clin Infect Dis 31(suppl 3):S106-108, 2000.

– Griffith TS, Anderson RD, Davidson BL, Williams RD, Ratliff TL: Adenoviralmediated transfer of the TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand/Apo-2 ligand gene induces tumor cell apoptosis. J Immunol 165:2886-2894, 2000.

– Siemens DR, Iwasawa T, Austin JC, Williams RD, See W, Hedican SP, Tartaglia J, Flynn CM, Cohen M, Rodgers J, Ratliff TL: Biomarker distribution after injection in the canine prostate: Implications for gene therapy. BJU International, 86:1076- 1083, 2000.

– Zhao W., Schorey JS, Bong-Mastek M, Ritchey J, Brown EJ and Ratliff TL: Role of a bacillus calmette-guerin fibronectin attachment protein in BCG-induced antitumor activity. Int J Cancer 86:83-88, 2000.

– Lutgendorf SK, Kreder KJ, Rothrock NE, Ratliff TL, Zimmerman B.: Stress and Symptomatology in Patients with Interstitial Cystitis: A Laboratory Stress Model. J Urol 164:1265-1269, 2000.

– Norian LA, Latinis KM, Eliason SL, Lyson K, Yang C, Ratliff T, Koretzky GA: The regulation of CD95 (Fas) ligand expression in primary T cells: Induction of promoter activation in CD95LP-Lue transgenic mice. J Immunol 164:4471-4480, 2000.

– Siemens DR, Austin JC, Hedican SP, Tartaglia J, and Ratliff TL: Viral vector delivery in solid-state vehicles: Gene expression in a murine prostate cancer model. J Natl Cancer Inst 92(5):403-412, 2000.

– Chan DW, Kelley CA, Ratliff TL, et al: Analytical and clinical performance characteristics of Hybritech's Tandem-R free PSA assay during a large multicenter clinical trial to determine the clinical utility of percentage of free prostate-specific antigen.

– Zhao W., Schorey JS, Groger R., Allen PM, Brown, EJ, Ratliff TL: Characterization of the fibronectin binding motif for a unique mycobacterial fibronectin attachment protein, FAP. J Biol Chem, 274:4521-4526, 1999.

– Belldegrun AS, Franklin JR, O'Donnell MA, Gomella LG Klein E, Neri R, Nseyo UO, Ratliff TL: Superficial bladder cancer: The role of interferon-alpha. J Urol 160:1444, 1998.

– Grossman HB, Debruyne FMJ, Akaza H, Aso Y, Kagawa S, Kakehi Y, van der Meijden APM, Ratliff TL: New treatment approaches for superficial and invasive bladder cancer. Urol Oncol, 4:183-187, 1998.

– Ratliff TL, Williams RD: Editorial: Hemorrhagic cystitis, chemotherapy, and bladder toxicity. J Urol 159:1044, 1998.

– Ratliff TL, Rao GS, Ritchey JK: Invasive bladder carcinoma: progress in basic research, surgical and medical therapy. Eur Urol, 33(suppl 4):15, 1998.

– Belldegrun AS, Franklin JR, O'Donnell MA, Gomella LG, Klein E, Neir Rudolph, Nseyo UO, Ratliff TL, Williams RD: Superficial bladder cancer: The role of interferon-a. J Urol, 159:1793-1801, 1998.

– Kawakita M, Yoshida O, Ratliff TL: Poxvirus vectors for gene transfer. Hinyokika Kiyo-Acta Urologica Japonica 43(11):835-838, 1997.

– Arcangeli CG, Smith DS, Ratliff TL, and Catalona WJ: Stability of serum total and free prostate-specific antigen under varying storage intervals and temperatures. J Urol, 158:2182-2187, 1997.

– Ornstein DK, Smith DS, Rao GS, Basler JW, Ratliff TL and Catalona WJ: Biological variation of total, free and percent free serum prostate specific antigen levels in screening volunteers. J Urol, 157:2179-2182, 1997.

– Ornstein DK, Rao GS, Smith DS, Ratliff TL, Basler JW and Catalona WJ: Effect of digital rectal examination and needle biopsy on serum total and percentage of free prostate specific antigen levels. J Urol, 157:195-198, 1997.

– Kawakita M, Rao GS, Ritchey JK, Ornstein DK, Hudson MA, Tartaglia J, Paoletti E, Humphrey PA, Harmon TA, and Ratliff TL: Effect of canarypox virus (ALVAC)- mediated cytokine expression on murine prostate tumor growth. J Natl Can Inst, 89(6):428-436, 1997.

– Hofmeister MA, He F, Ratliff TL, Mahoney T, Becich MJ: Mast cells and nerve fibers in interstitial cystitis (IC): An algorithm for histologic diagnosis via quantitative image analysis and morphometry (QIAM). Urology, 49:41-47, 1997.

– Keetch DW, Andriole GL, Ratliff TL, Catalona WJ: Comparison of percent free prostate-specific antigen levels in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia treated with finasteride, terazosin, or watchful waiting. Urology, 50:901-905, 1997.

– Wang R, Rogers AM, Ratliff TL, Russell JH: CD95-dependent bystander lysis caused by CD4+ T helper 1 effectors. J Immunol, 157(7):2961-2968, 1996.

– Wolf JS Jr., Soble JJ, Ratliff TL, and Clayman RV: Ureteral cell cultures. II. Collagen production and response to pharmacologic agents. J Urol, 156(6):2067- 2072, 1996.

– Wolf JS Jr., Soble JJ, Ratliff TL, and Clayman RV: Ureteral cell cultures. I. Characterization and cellular interactions. J Urol, 156(3):1198-2003, 1996.

– Schorey, JS, Holsti MA, Ratliff TL, Allen PM, Brown EJ: Characterization of the fibronectin attachment protein of Mycobacterium avium reveals a fibronectin binding motif conserved among mycobacteria. Molecular Microbiol, 21:321-329, 1996.

– Ratliff TL, Kawakita M, Tartaglia J, and Paoletti E: Canary-pox (ALVAC) virusmediated cytokine gene therapy induces tumor specific and non-specific immunity against mouse prostate tumor. Acta Urol Belg, 64(2):85, 1996.

– Ratliff TL: Molecular research in cancer: Future clinical applications. Acta Urol Belg, 64(2):53-55, 1996.

– Abi-Aad AS, and Ratliff TL: Gene therapy. Acta Urol Belg, 64(2):51-52, 1996.

– Ratliff TL, and Hudson MA: BCG treatment: Current status. Acta Urol Belg, 64(2):25, 1996.

– He F, Hofmeister M, Ratliff TL, Klutke CG, Becich MJ: Morphological characteristics of bladder mast cell and nerve fibers in interstitial cystitis and experimental autoimmune cystitis. J Urol Pathol 3:289-313, 1995.

– Nadler RB, Humphrey PA, Smith DS, Catalona WJ, Ratliff TL: Effect of inflammation and benign prostatic hyperplasia on elevated serum prostatic specific antigen levels. J Urol 154:403-407, 1995.

– Humphrey PA, Xiapei Z, Zarnegar R, Swanson PE, Ratliff TL, Vollmer RT, Day ML: Hepatocyte growth factor and its receptor (c-MET) in prostatic carcinoma: Linkage of cMET expression with androgen insensitivity and metastasis. Am J Pathol 147(2):386-396, 199

– Schorey JS, Li Q, McCourt DW, Bong-Mastek M, Clark-Curtiss JE, Ratliff TL, Brown EJ: A Mycobacterium lepra gene encoding a fibronectin binding protein is used for efficient invasion of epithelial cells and schwann cells. Infection and Immunity 63(7):2652-

– Hudson MA, Ratliff TL: Failure of intravesical interferon-alpha-2b for the treatment of patients with superficial bladder cancer previously failing intravesical BCG therapy. Urol Oncol 1:115-118, 1995.

– Catalona WJ, Smith DS, Wolfert RL, Wang TJ, Rittenhouse HG, Ratliff TL, Nadler RB: Evaluation of percentage of free serum prostate-specific antigen to improve specificity of prostate cancer screening. JAMA 274:1214-1220, 1995.

– Dalkin BL, Ahmann FR, Kopp JB, Catalona WJ, Ratliff TL, Hudson MA, Richie JP, Scardino PT, Flanigan RC, and deKernion JB, et al: Derivation and application of upper limits for prostate specific antigen in men aged 50-74 years with no clinical evidence of

– Lamm DL, van der Meijden AP, Akaza H, Brendler C, Hedlund PO, Mizutani Y, Ratliff TL, Robinson MR, and Shinka T: Intravesical chemotherapy and immunotherapy: How do we assess their effectiveness and what are their limitations and uses? Intl J Urol, 2:23-3

– Ratliff TL: Changes in bladder extracellular matrix--overview. Adv Exp Med & Biol, 385:185-186, 1995.

– Catalona WJ, Hudson MA, Scardino PT, Richie JP, Ahmann FR, Flanigan RC, deKernion JB, Ratliff TL, Kavoussi LR, Dalkin BL, Waters WB, MacFarlane MT, S Southwick PC: Selection of optimal prostate specific antigen (PSA) cutoffs for early detection of prostat

– Catalona WJ, Richie JP, deKernion JB, Ahmann FR, Ratliff TL, Dalkin BK, Kavoussi LR, MacFarlane MT, and Southwick PC: Comparison of prostate specific antigen (PSA) concentration versus prostate specific antigen density (PSAD) in the early detection of pro

– Ratliff TL, Ritchey JK, Brandhorst J, and Hanna MG, Jr.: Time dependent aggregation of reconstituted BCG vaccine. J Urol 152(6):2147-2150, 1994.

– Flanigan RC, Catalona WJ, Richie JP, Ahmann FR, Hudson ML, Scardino PT, deKernion JB, Ratliff TL, Kavoussi LR, Dalkin BL, Waters WB, MacFarlane MT, Southwick PC: Accuracy of digital rectal examination (DRE) and transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) in locali

– Swerdlow RD, Ratliff TL, La Regina M, Ritchey JK, and Ebert RF: Immunotherapy with keyhole limpet hemocyanin: Efficacy and safety in the MB-49 intravesical murine bladder tumor model. J Urol 151(6):1718-1722, 1994.

– Nadler RB, Catalona WJ, Hudson MA, and Ratliff TL: Durability of the tumor-free response for intravesical BCG therapy. J Urol 152(2):367-373, 1994.

– Keetch DW, Humphrey P, Ratliff TL: Development of a mouse model for nonbacterial prostatitis. J Urol 152:247-250, 1994.

– Catalona WJ, Richie JP, Ahmann FR, Hudson MA, Scardino PT, Flanigan RC, deKernion JB, Ratliff TL, Kavoussi LR, Dalkin BL, Waters WB, MacFarlane MT, Southwick PC: Comparison of digital rectal examination and serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) in the ear

– Ratliff TL, Klutke CG, McDougall EM: The etiology of interstitial cystitis. Urol Clinics of No Amer, 21:21-30, 1994.

– Ritchie JP, Catalona WJ, Ahmann FR, Hudson MA, Scardino PT, Flanigan RC, deKernion JB, Ratliff TL, Kavoussi LR, Dalkin BL, Waters WB, MacFarlane MT, Southwick PC: Evaluation of digital rectal examination and serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) by patien

– Ratliff TL, Ritchey JK, Yuan JJJ, Andriole GL, Catalona WJ: T-cell subsets required for intravesical BCG immunotherapy for bladder cancer. J Urol 150(3):1018-1023, 1993.

– Catalona WJ, Smith DS, Ratliff TL, Basler JW: Detection of Organ-confined prostate cancer is increased through prostate specific antigen - based screening. JAMA 270(8):948-954, 1993.

– Ratliff TL, McCarthy R, Telle WB and Brown EJ: Purification of a mycobacterial adhesion for fibronectin. Infection and Immunity 61:1889-1894, 1993.

– Goldstein DS, Lu ML, Ratliff TL, Loughlin KR, Kavoussi LR: Inhibition of peritoneal tumor-cell implantation: Model for laparoscopic cancer surgery. J of Endourol 7(3):237-41, 1993.

– Ritchie MP, Catalona WJ, Ahmann FR, Hudson MA, Scardino PT, Flanigan RC, DeKernion JB, Ratliff TL, Kavoussi LR, Dalkin BL, Waters WB, MacFarlane MT, Southwick PC: Effect of patient age on early detection of prostate cancer with serum prostate specific ant

– Kuroda K, Brown EJ, Telle WB, Russell DG, Ratliff TL: Characterization of the internalization of bacillus-calmette-guerin by human bladder tumor cells. J Clin Invest 91:69-76, 1993.

– Andriole GL, Keetch DW, Dehner LP, Ratliff TL: Superficial bladder cancer. Cur Prob Urol, Sept/Oct:148-194, 1992.

– Bullock AD, Becich MJ, Klutke CG, Ratliff TL: Experimental autoimmune cystitis: A potential murine model for ulcerative interstitial cystitis. J Urol 148(6):1951-1956, 1992.

– Yuan JJJ, Coplen DE, Petros JA, Figenshau RS, Ratliff TL, Smith DS and Catalona WJ: Effects of rectal examination, prostatic massage, ultrasonography and needle biopsy on serum prostate specific antigen levels. J Urol 147:810-814, 1992.

– Hudson MA, Ritchey JK, and Ratliff TL: Modulation of BCG-fibronectin binding through use of drugs influencing the coagulation pathway. Can Res 51:3726-3732, 1991.

– Ratliff TL, Hudson MA, and Catalona WJ: Strategy for improving therapy of superficial bladder cancer. World J of Urol 9:95-98, 1991.

– Ratliff TL: Role of immune response in BCG for bladder cancer. Eur Urol, 21(suppl 2):17-21, 1992.

– Becich MJ, Carroll S, Ratliff TL: Internalization of bacille calmette-guerin by bladder tumor cells. J Urol 145(6):1316-1324, 1991.

– Ratliff TL: BCG: Mechanism of action in superficial bladder cancer. Urology 37(5):8-11,1991.

– Coplen DE, Brown EJ, McGarr J, and Ratliff TL: Characterization of fibronectin attachment by a human transitional cell carcinoma line, T24. J Urol 145:1312-1315, 1991.

– Catalona WJ, Smith DS, Ratliff TL, Dodds KM, Coplen DE, Yuan JJ, Petros JA, and Andriole GA: Measurement of prostate specific antigen in serum as a screening test for prostate cancer. NEJM 324:1156-1161, 1991.

– Hudson MA, Ratliff TL: BCG therapy for superficial bladder cancer fundamental aspects. In Vivo, 5:643-646, 1991.

– Ratliff TL, Andriole GL: Putting BCG to best use in superficial bladder cancer. Contemp Urol, Nov:48-56, 1991.

– Petros JA, Wang ZQ, Ratliff TL, Catalona WJ: Characterization and partial purification of a non-heparin-binding prostate growth factor from cancerous human prostate. Mol Cell Biol Prost Can, 127-140, 1991.

– Hudson MA, Brown EJ, Ritchey JK, and Ratliff TL: Modulation of fibronectinmediated bacillus calmette-guerin attachment to murine bladder mucosa by drugs influencing the coagulation pathways. Can Res 51:3726-3732, 1991.

– Coplen DE, Marcus MD, Myers JA, Ratliff TL, and Catalona WJ: Long-term followup of patients treated with 1 or 2 6-week courses of intravesical bacille calmetteguerin: Analysis of possible predictors of response free of tumor. J Urol 144:652- 657, 1990.

– Catalona WJ, Ratliff TL: Bacillus calmette-guerin & superficial bladder cancer. Clinical experience & mechanism of action. [Review] Surgery Annual 22:363-378, 1990.

– Hudson MA, Catalona WJ, and Ratliff TL: Adverse impact of fibrin clot inhibitors on intravesical bacillus calmette-guerin therapy for superficial bladder tumors. J Urol 144:1362-1364, 1990.

– Hudson MA, Ritchey JK, Catalona WJ, Brown EJ, and Ratliff TL: Comparison of the fibronectin-binding ability and antitumor efficacy of various substrains of BCG. Can Res 50:3843-3947, 1990.

– Bahnson RR, and Ratliff TL: In vitro and in vivo anti-tumor activity of recombinant mouse tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in a mouse bladder tumor (MBT-2). J Urol 144:172-175, 1990.

– Kavoussi LR, Brown EJ, Ritchey JK, and Ratliff TL: Fibronectin mediated bacillecalmette guerin attachment to murine bladder mucosa: Requirement for the expression of an antitumor response. J Clin Invest 85:62-67, 1990.

– Hudson MA, Catalona WJ, Ritchey JK, Aslanzadeh J, Brown EJ, and Ratliff TL: Choice of an optimal diluent for intravesical BCG administration. J Urol 142:1438- 1441, 1989.

– Fleischmann JD, Toossi A, Ellner J, Wentworth DB, Ratliff TL, and Imbembo AL: Urinary interleukins in patients receiving intravesical bacillus calmette-guerin therapy for superficial bladder cancer. Cancer 64:1447-1454, 1989.

– Aslanzadeh J, Brown EJ, Quillan SP, Ritchey JK, and Ratliff TL: Characterization of soluble fibronectin binding to bacille calmette-guerin. J Gen Microbiol 135:2735-1741, 1989.

– Kavoussi LR, Ruesing RA, Hudson MA, Catalona WJ, and Ratliff TL: Effect of tumor necrosis factor and interferon gamma on human renal carcinoma cell line growth. J Urol 142:875-878, 1989.

– Jacobs AL, Dawoud L, Kavacs Z, and Ratliff TL: Inhibition of proliferation of lines derived from human cervical carcinoma by cytotoxic drugs and by recombinant interferons. Gynecol Oncol 32:31-36, 1989.

– Abou-Zeid C, Ratliff TL, Wiker HG, Harboe M, Bennedsen J and Rook GAW: Characterization of fibronectin-binding antigens released by mycobacterium tuberculosis and mycobacterium bovis BCG. Infect and Immunity 56:3046-3051, 1988.

– Bahnson RR, and Ratliff TL: Effects of interferon in combination with cytotoxic drugs on mouse bladder tumor (MBT-2) growth in vitro and in vivo. J Urol 140:656- 659, 1988.

– Bahnson RR, and Ratliff TL: Inhibition of mouse bladder tumor proliferation by alpha difuoromethylornithine and interferon alpha/gamma in vitro and in vivo. J Urol 139:1367-1371, 1988.

– Ratliff TL, McGarr JA, Abou-Zeid C, Rook GAW, Stanford JL, Aslanzadeh J, and Brown EJ: Attachment of mycobacteria to fibronectin coated surfaces. J Gen Microbiol 134:1307-1313, 1988.

– Kavoussi LR, Torrence RJ, Gillen DP, Hudson MA, Haaf EO, Dresner SM, Ratliff TL, and Catalona WJ: Results of six weekly intravesical BCG instillations on the treatment of superficial bladder tumors. J Urol 139:935-940, 1988.

– Torrence RJ, Kavoussi LR, Catalona WJ, and Ratliff TL: Prognostic factors in patients treated with bacillus calmette-guerin for superficial bladder cancer. J Urol 139:941-944, 1988.

– Abou-Zeid C, Smith I, Grange JM, Ratliff TL, Steele J, and Rook GAW: The secreted antigens of mycobacterium tuberculosis and their relationship to those recognized by the available antibodies. J Gen Microbiol 134:531-538, 1988.

– Ratliff TL, Kavoussi LR, and Catalona WJ: Role of fibronectin in intravesical BCG therapy for superficial bladder cancer. J Urol 139:410-414, 1988.

– Hudson MA, Ratliff TL, Gillen DB, Haaf EO, Dresner SM, and Catalona WJ: Single course versus maintenance BCG therapy for superficial bladder tumors: A prospective, randomized trial. J Urol 138:295-298, 1987.

– Ratliff TL, Palmer J, McGarr J, and Brown E: Intravesical bacille calmette-guerin (BCG) therapy for murine bladder tumors: Initiation of the response by fibronectinmediated attachment of BCG. Can Res 47:1762-1766, 1987.

– Catalona WJ, Hudson MA, Gillen DP, Andriole GL, and Ratliff TL: Risks and benefits of repeated courses of intravesical bacillus calmette-guerin therapy for superficial bladder cancer. J Urol 137:220-224, 1987.

– Ratliff TL, Gillen DP, and Catalona WJ: Requirement of a thymus dependent immune response for BCG-mediated antitumor activity. J Urol 137:155-158, 1987.

– Haaf EO, Dresner SM, Ratliff TL, and Catalona WJ: Two courses of intravesical bacillus calmette-guerin for transitional carcinoma of the bladder. J Urol 136:820- 824, 1986.

– Haaf EO, Catalona WJ, and Ratliff TL: Detection of interleukin 2 in the urine of patients with superficial bladder tumors after treatment with intravesical BCG. J Urol 136:970-974, 1986.

– Ratliff TL, Shapiro A, and Catalona WJ: Inhibition of murine bladder tumor growth by bacille calmette-guerin: Lack of a role of natural killer cells. Clin Immunol & Immunopathol 41:108-115, 1986.

– Ratliff TL, Haaff EO, and Catalona WJ: Interleukin 2 production during intravesical BCG therapy for bladder cancer. Clin Immunol & Immunopathol 40:375-379, 1986.

– Lage JM, Bauer WC, Kelley DR, Ratliff TL, and Catalona WJ: Histologic parameters and pitfalls in the interpretation of bladder biopsies in BCG treatment of superficial bladder cancer. J Urol 135:916-919, 1986.

– Kelley DR, Haaff EO, Becich M, Lage J, Bauer WC, Dresner SM, Catalona WJ, and Ratliff TL: Prognostic value of PPD skin test and granuloma formation in patients treated with intravesical BCG. J Urol 135:268-271, 1986.

– Fleischmann J, Heston WDW, Bauer WC, Ratliff TL, and Fair WR: Human renal cell carcinoma xenograft: Morphology, growth and chemosensitivities. J Urol 134:498-500, 1985.

– Kelley DR, Ratliff TL, Catalona WJ, Shapiro A, Lange JM, Bauer WC, Haaff EO, and Dresner SM: Intravesical bacillus calmette-guerin therapy for superficial bladder cancer: Effect of bacillus calmette-guerin viability on treatment results. J Urol 134:48-53,

– Howe RC, Milstone DS, Ratliff TL, and Russell JH: Interleukin 2 mediated induction of lytic activity in a cloned murine CTL line. J Immunol 134:2414-2418, 1985.

– Ratliff TL, Kadmon D, Shapiro A, Jacobs AJ, and Heston WDW: Inhibition of mouse bladder tumor proliferation by murine interferon-gamma and its synergism with interferon-gamma. Can Res 44:4377-4381, 1984.

– Heston WDW, Fleischmann J, Tackett RE and Ratliff TL: Effects of alphadifuoromethylornithine and recombinant interferon-alpha 2 on the growth of a human renal cell adenocarcinoma xenograft in nude mice. Can Res 44:3220-3225, 1984.

– Shapiro A, Ratliff TL, Kelley DR, and Catalona WJ: Heightened interferon-gamma production by mononuclear cells from bladder cancer patients. Can Res 44:3140- 3143, 1984.

– Shapiro A, Kelley DR, Oakley DM, Catalona WJ, and Ratliff TL: Technical factors affecting the reproducibility of intravesical mouse bladder tumor implantation during therapy with bacillus calmette-guerin. Can Res 44:3051-3054, 1984.

– Shapiro A, Ratliff TL, Oakley DM, and Catalona WJ: Comparison of the efficacy of intravesical bacillus calmette-guerin with thiotepa, mitomycin C, poly I:C/Poly-LLysine and Cis platinum in murine bladder cancer. J Urol 131:139-141, 1984.

– Shapiro A, Ratliff TL, Oakley DM, and Catalona WJ: Reduction of bladder tumor growth in mice treated with intravesical bacillus calmette-guerin and its correlation with bacillus calmette-guerin viability and natural killer cell activity. Can Res 43:1611-1

– Ratliff TL, MacDermott RP, Poepping NJ, Oakley DM, Shapiro A, and Catalona WJ: Production of gamma interferon by human T and null cells and its regulation by macrophages. Cellular Immunol 74:111-119, 1982.

– Shapiro A, Kadmon D, Catalona WJ, and Ratliff TL: Immunotherapy of superficial bladder cancer. J Urol 128:891-894, 1982.

– Ratliff TL, Thomasson DL, McCool RE, and Catalona WJ: T-cell hybridoma production of macrophage activation factor (MAF). I. Separation of MAF from interferon gamma. J Reticuloendothelial Society 31:393, 1982.

– Ratliff TL, Thomasson DL, McCool RE, and Catalona WJ: Production of macrophage activation factor (MAF) by a T-cell hybridoma. Cellular Immunol 68:311, 1982.

– Ratliff TL, McCool RE, and Catalona WJ: Optimum conditions for the reproducible measurement of concanvalin A-activated suppressor cell activity. Transplant 33:505, 1982.

– Catalona WJ, Ratliff TL, and McCool RE: Role of antibody in cytotoxicity by lymphocytes armed against 253J bladder cancer line. Intl Archives Appl Immunol 66:259, 1981.

– McCool RE, Catalona WJ, Langford MP, Ratliff TL: Induction of human gamma interferon by protein A from staphylococcus aureus. J Interferon Res 1:473, 1981.

– Catalona WJ, Ratliff TL, and McCool RE: Gamma interferon induced by S. aureus protein A augments natural killing and ADCC. Nature 291:77, 1981.

– Ratliff TL, and Talburt DE: Elevated cyclic adenosine 3', 5' monophosphate levels enhance lactic acid production by streptococcus lactis. J Dairy Sci 64:391-395, 1981.

– Ratliff TL, McCool RE, and Catalona WJ: Interferon induction and augmentation of natural killer activity by staphylococcus protein A. Cellular Immunol 57:1, 1981.

– Catalona WJ, Ratliff TL, and McCool RE: Characterization of interferon induced in human lymphocytes by staphylococcal protein A. Surgical Forum 31:591, 1980.

– Catalona WJ, Ratliff TL, and McCool RE: Con A-activated suppressor cell activity in peripheral blood lymphocytes of urologic cancer patients. J Natl Can Inst 65:553, 1980.

– Ratliff TL, Stinson RS, and Talburt DE: Effect of prostaglandin E, -induced elevation of cyclic AMP on glucose repression in the lactic streptococci. Canadian J Microbiol 26:58, 1980.

– Catalona WJ, Ratliff TL, and McCool RE: Characterization of cell-mediated cytolytic mechanisms against human transitional cell carcinoma line, 253J. Immunol 39:1119, 1980.

– Catalona WJ, Ratliff TL, and McCool RE: Concanvalin A-inducible suppressor cells in regional lymph nodes of cancer patients. Can Res 39:4372, 1979.

– Ratliff TL, McCool RE, and Catalona WJ: Antibody-dependent and spontaneous lympholysis in urologic cancer patients. Brit J Can 39:667, 1979.

– Catalona WJ, Ratliff TL, and McCool RE: Discordance among cell-mediated cytolytic mechanisms in cancer patients: Importance of the target cell. J Immunol 122:1009, 1979.

– Catalona WJ, Ratliff TL, and McCool RE: Concanvalin A-activated suppressor cells in peripheral blood and lymph nodes of urologic cancer patients. Surgical Forum 29:621, 1978.

– Catalona WJ, Feldman AT, Ratliff TL, and McCool RE: Suppressive effects of regional lymph node cells and extracts on antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity. J Urol 119:396, 1978.

– Catalona WJ, Ratliff TL, and McCool RE: Effect of carrageenan on spontaneous and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Cellular Immunol 40:1, 1978.

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