Animal-Assisted Intervention for Autism

One of the focuses of the OHAIRE lab is to study the unique interactions between people with
autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and animals.

Learn more about the OHAIRE lab's current research on this topic.

Read the OHAIRE lab's published research on this topic.

What is autism spectrum disorder?

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is referred to as a spectrum, since it reflects a wide variety of symptom severity and intellectual abilities. The core symptoms of ASD are challenges in social interactions and restricted, repetitive behaviors and interests [1]. Estimates suggest that 1 in 59 children in the U.S. are affected by ASD [2].

Why include animals in autism intervention?

There are several suggested reasons that animals may be valuable in autism intervention for some individuals.

  1. Social Facilitation: Evidence points to a potential 'social facilitation’ effect of animals. People may be more likely to engage socially when in the presence of animals [3, 4]. This effect may address the social challenges that people with autism face in their daily lives. Studies have found that children with autism not only interact more socially with their peers in the presence of animals, but also smile more [5, 6].

  2. Attentional Focus: Animals are often sought for their ability provide a positive external focus of attention. For example, one study found that children with autism looked longer at faces of dogs than faces of humans [7]. The presence of animals may therefore be a way to keep a child attentive to the intervention.

  3. Nonjudgmental Companions: Animals are perceived as providing nonjudgmental companionship. This component of animal-assisted intervention is especially important to children with autism, who are sometimes at a higher risk for stress and bullying by their peers, particularly during the school age years [8, 9].

How common are animals in autism intervention?

The idea that animals can benefit children and adults with autism is prevalent, and stories of animals helping people overcome the challenges that come with autism are often reported in the media. One survey estimated that almost 25% of families of children with autism have participated in some form of animal-assisted intervention [10].

Animals are present in the lives of individuals with autism in a number of ways, from household pets to interventions with varying structures, goals, and animal species. The main types of animal-assisted intervention are animal-assisted activities, animal-assisted therapy, animal-assisted education, and the provision of assistance animals [11].

Does research support animal-assisted intervention for autism?

Conducting research is the best way to develop and assess effective and reliable interventions such as animal-assisted intervention. Research can evaluate the outcomes of a specific program and compare multiple methodologies.

Following the public enthusiasm for animal-assisted intervention for autism, an increasing number of research teams have begun investigating the effects of animals for people with autism. As this field of research is emerging, our research group at the OHAIRE lab conducted two reviews of the scientific literature and found a growing body of studies on this topic [12, 13].

Our systematic reviews have found that, despite positive results, many early studies investigating the effects of animal-assisted intervention for autism were characterized by a lack of scientific rigor, small sample sizes, poor study designs, or researcher bias [12, 13]. However, recent years have seen an increase in high-quality research on animal-assisted intervention for autism. As rigorous studies are being conducted and their findings shared, animal-assisted intervention for autism is better understood in its benefits and limitations.

Figure: The number of scientific studies on animal-assisted intervention for autism has increased over time.


What do we do at the OHAIRE lab?

At the OHAIRE lab, we aim to conduct and collaborate on high-quality research to understand the effects of animal-assisted intervention for autism. Our commitment to conducting strong scientific research includes developing carefully designed studies, using state-of-the-art protocols and unbiased measurements, and rigorously reporting on our findings in peer-reviewed journals and at international conferences.

Methodology: Conducting high-quality research requires using high-quality tools. When it comes to evaluating the effects of an intervention, the primary source of outcomes used is questionnaires. At the OHAIRE lab, we think that while questionnaires are a useful tool to gain personal insight from the family and caretakers of children with autism, other objective measures can reveal a richer, potentially less biased picture of the effect of interventions. Therefore, our research incorporates physiological and behavioral data in addition to questionnaire data. In particular, we have developed a behavior coding tool: The Observation of Human-Animal Interaction for Research (OHAIRE) is designed to capture changes in behavior caused by the intervention. We also investigate the physiological mechanisms underlying animal interaction by incorporating assessment of the stress response system (e.g. electrodermal activity, salivary cortisol).

Findings: Our research group has worked on investigating the effects of a number of species and types of interventions for autism, including guinea pigs as classroom pets, therapeutic horseback riding, canine-assisted therapy, and autism service dogs. Example findings include:

  • Animal-assisted activities with guinea pigs had positive effects for children with autism, including increases in smiling and social behaviors [6, 14]. Children with ASD also exhibited a 43% decrease in skin conductance, a measure of physiological activation, when interacting with guinea pigs as compared to toys [15].

  • Psychiatrically hospitalized children with ASD displayed more positive emotional facial expressions when interacting with a therapy dog than with toys. Engaging with the therapy dog also resulted in more talking, use of gestures, and looking at both adults and peers [16].

Further details on our findings and publications can be found here.

Current Research: We are currently conducting a national study evaluating the efficacy of autism service dogs for both children with ASD and their caregivers called Purdue Canines for Autism REsearch Study (Purdue CARES). Learn more here.

Frequently Asked Questions

My child has autism, should I get a service dog?

In two systematic literature reviews [12, 13], there have been few studies evaluating the effectiveness of service dogs for autism compared to other forms of animal-assisted intervention. However, ongoing research is working to provide critically-needed assessment of service dogs for both children with autism and their families. To determine if a service dog may be suitable for your family, we recommend speaking to organizations that are experienced in providing service dogs to children with autism.

Is dolphin-assisted therapy effective?

The effectiveness of dolphin-assisted therapy for autism is not currently supported by scientific evidence [12, 13]. It is argued that the few studies reporting positive effects of dolphin-assisted therapy did not take into account a number of biases. In particular, the results of dolphin therapy may be attributed to simply moving to a new, outdoor, sunny environment [17]. In addition, the benefits of dolphin-assisted therapy are often linked to ultra-high frequency vocalizations. In fact, there is no evidence of the benefits of these vocalizations, and they are rare during dolphin-assisted therapy sessions, typically exposing children to less than 10 seconds of vocalization [18]. Welfare is also an ethical issue to take into account when considering dolphin-assisted therapy. The welfare of both the dolphin and the human must be top priority and is challenging to ensure with wild animals [19]. Nevertheless, one study reported that interaction programs can have positive short-term effects and could be a form of enrichment for captive dolphins [20].

Can autism be cured with animal contact?

There is not a current 'cure' for autism, but rather a range of treatments aimed to improve social skills and the quality of life of individuals with autism. Animal-assisted intervention is not currently recommended as a primary treatment option for autism, but rather as a complementary or integrative treatment or enrichment activity. Empirically supported therapies such as Occupational Therapy, Speech Therapy, and Applied Behavior Analysis remain the primary recommended treatment options for autism. Animal-assisted intervention may yield positive outcomes such as increases in social interaction, communicative behaviors, positive emotions, and motor control for some individuals.

Written by Noémie A. Guérin and the OHAIRE Group


  1. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.).
  2. Baio, J., Wiggins, L., Christensen, D. L., Maenner, M. J., Daniels, J., Warren, Z., Kurzius-Spencer, M., Zahorodny, W., Robinson Rosenberg, C., White, T., Durkin, M. S., Imm, P., Nikolaou, L., Yeargin-Allsopp, M., Lee, L., Harrington, R., Lopez, M., Fitzgerald, R. T., Hewitt, A., … Dowling, N. F. (2018). Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder among children aged 8 years—Autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, 11 sites, United States, 2014MMWR Surveillance Summaries67(6), 1.
  3. McNicholas, J., & Collis, G. M. (2000). Dogs as catalysts for social interaction: Robustness of the effect. British Journal of Psychology, 91(1), 61-70.
  4. Wood, L., Giles-Corti, B., & Bulsara, M. (2005). The pet connection: Pets as a conduit for social capital? Social Science & Medicine, 61(6), 1159-1173.
  5. Funahashi, A., Gruebler, A., Aoki, T., Kadone, H., & Suzuki, K. (2013). Brief report: The smiles of a child with autism spectrum disorder during an animal-assisted activity may facilitate social positive behaviors--Quantitative analysis with smile-detecting interface. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44(3), 685-693.
  6. O'Haire, M.E., McKenzie, S. J., Beck, A. M., & Slaughter, V. (2013). Social behaviors increase in children with autism in the presence of animals compared to toys. PLOS ONE, 8(2), [e57010].
  7. Hutt, C., & Ounsted, C. (1966). The biological significance of gaze aversion with particular reference to the syndrome of infantile autism. Behavioral science, 11(5), 346-356.
  8. Cappadocia, M.C., Weiss, J. A., & Pepler, D. (2012). Bullying experiences among children and youth with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42(2), 266-277.
  9. Hebron, J., & Humphrey, N. (2013). Exposure to bullying among students with autism spectrum conditions: A multi-informant analysis of risk and protective factors. Autism, 18(6), 618-630.
  10. Christon, L.M., Mackintosh, V. H., & Myers, B. J. (2010). Use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments by parents of children with autism spectrum disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 4(2), 249-259.
  11. International Association of Human-Animal Interaction Organizations. (2014). The IAHAIO definitions for animal assisted intervention and guidelines for wellness of animals involved. [White paper].
  12. O'Haire, M.E., (2013). Animal-assisted intervention for autism spectrum disorder: A systematic literature review. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43(7), 1606-1622.
  13. O’Haire, M. E. (2017). Research on animal-assisted intervention and autism spectrum disorder, 2012–2015Applied Developmental Science21(3), 200-216.
  14. O'Haire, M.E., McKenzie, S. J., McCune, S., & Slaughter, V. (2014). Effects of classroom animal-assisted activities on social functioning in children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 20(3), 162-168.
  15. O'Haire, M. E., McKenzie, S. J., Beck, A. M., & Slaughter, V. (2015). Animals may act as social buffers: Skin conductance arousal in children with autism spectrum disorder in a social context. Developmental Psychobiology57(5), 584-595.
  16. Germone, M. M., Gabriels, R. L., Guérin, N. A., Pan, Z., Banks, T., & O’Haire, M. E. (2019). Animal-assisted activity improves social behaviors in psychiatrically hospitalized youth with autismAutism, 23(7), 1740-1751.
  17. Marino, L., & Lilienfeld, S. O. (2007). Dolphin-assisted therapy: More flawed data and more flawed conclusions. Anthrozoös: A multidisciplinary journal of the interactions of people & animals, 20(3), 239-249.
  18. Brensing, K., Linke, K., & Todt, D. (2003). Can dolphins heal by ultrasound? Journal of Theoretical Biology, 225(1), 99-105.
  19. Iannuzzi, D., & Rowan, A. N. (1991). Ethical issues in animal-assisted therapy programs. Anthrozoös: A multidisciplinary journal of the interactions of people & animals, 4(3), 154-163.
  20. Miller, L. J., Mellen, J. D., Greer, T. F., & Kuczaj, S. A. (2011). The effects of education programmes on Atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) behaviour. Animal Welfare, 20(2), 159-172.

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