The OHAIRE Coding System
The Observation of Human-Animal Interaction for Research (OHAIRE) is a timed interval coding system intended to capture the unique interactions between humans and animals. It was originally developed and piloted with children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) interacting with typically-developing peers in a small group school setting with guinea pigs compared to toys (O’Haire et al., 2013). The OHAIRE Version 3 (OHAIRE-V3) was expanded and updated from its original version to enhance the accuracy and efficiency of administration (Guérin et al., 2016).
When can it be used?
It is currently being used to capture interactions with multiple species, including dogs, horses, and guinea pigs. It can be used for videos both with and without an animal present. This enables blinded coding of interactions before and after the presence of an animal.
What does it capture?
The primary areas the OHAIRE-V3 captures are social communication behaviors, emotional displays, interactions with animals and control objects, and problem behaviors.
The coding tool uses an online coding system through Qualtrics to facilitate ease of coding and reduction of data entry errors associated with paper-and-pencil based measures. We can work with your team to develop a system that meets your study design and needs.
In the latest version, OHAIRE-V3, excellent reliability can be achieved when coders are trained by the original trainer (primary) or a subsequent trainer (secondary). It yields high inter-rater reliability in populations with ASD (mean k = 0.85) as well as typical development (mean k = 0.83), where levels above 0.75 are considered excellent.
How can I use it?
We are currently in the process of conducting further reliability and validity testing to ensure the highest quality data. Researchers interested in using the tool are invited to participate in this process by inviting one of the authors/trainers (Dr. O’Haire, Dr. Gabriels, or Dr. Germone) to conduct a training with their coders. There is currently a high demand for these trainings so until we have built up capacity to accommodate all interested parties, we have opted to select research groups with funding for travel and consulting costs during training and/or co-authorship on resultant manuscripts. We can provide relevant information as needed to be included in grant proposals. We look forward to working with you to ensure that you receive the best possible training and support as you capture ecologically valid data regarding the interactions of humans and animals.
For more information on the OHAIRE coding system, email firstname.lastname@example.org
- O'Haire, M. E., McKenzie, S. J., Beck, A. M., & Slaughter, V. (2013). Social behaviors increase in children with autism in the presence of animals compared to toys. PLoS ONE, 8(2), e57010.
- Guérin, N. A., Barton, A. K., & O’Haire, M. E. (2016). Social behaviors and positive emotional displays increase in typically developing children in the presence of animals compared to toys. 25th Annual ISAZ Conference. July 7-10, Barcelona, Spain.